Letting them build it

February 27, 2019

Agile methods like scrum and XP are very exciting, especially when you are first introduced to them. There is something very common sense about the ideas in them that seems to resonate for a lot of people. I know it was that way for me. I’d looked at a lot of different project management methods before settling on XP (thank you Steve McConnell). A lot of those methods looked interesting, but XP was the first one that just made sense. For a young project manager looking for a new way to do things, it was an easy choice. 

Now when you look closely at a method like XP you learn very quickly that it is actually a collection of practices, many of which have been around for a very long time. The thing that makes XP work, is the way that this particular set of practices or, as I like to think of it, this big agile bag full of cats works together. For instance, iterations by themselves have been around for a very long time under a different name: time boxes. Pair programming on the other hand, was a relatively new innovation as far as I know (although not entirely unheard of). And while continuous integration had actually been around in some form or another for a while, it was certainly best articulated and demonstrated by the proponents of XP. On their own I would argue that each of these ideas had plenty of merit, but the real magic happens when you combine them together. Each of these practices, and in XP there were roughly 13 of them, complements and overlaps one or more other practices in the set. So as a whole, you have a system of related ideas that have some redundancy and interconnection. You can see this in Ron Jeffries’ diagram of XP.

Now this gives you a package offering of interrelated ideas that many, including all XP practitioners I’ve ever met, say you need to adopt as a whole. You can’t just pick and choose the bits you like and expect to get great results. Why not? Well, I would go back to the redundancy and interrelated ideas. Let’s suppose for just a minute that you adopted all 13 XP practices, but you found that continuous integration for one reason or another was “too hard” or “not a good cultural fit” or for some other reason wasn’t going to work for your team. What might happen? Well, in all likelihood, in the short term you might not see any immediate effect. In fact, you might find that the team goes a little faster because they aren’t struggling to build continuous integration into their process. But hang on, we’re not done yet. You see there are practices that depend on continuous integration in order to work. For example, test driven development (TDD) and continuous refactoring. TDD relies on CI to give the developers quick feedback on their tests. That can’t happen without CI. So, developers are going to lose feedback on their tests, which means they aren’t going to get as much value from doing the tests in advance…and therefore they aren’t likely to keep doing TDD. Quality may start to suffer. And if they don’t have CI and TDD, then they don’t have the safety net of tests that they need to do continuous refactoring…so they are going to be less likely to try refactoring because it feels too risky.  By removing CI we have undermined quality and the resilience of the system we are developing (because we’re no longer refactoring). 

The impact of removing practices, especially in a pre-packaged set of methods has some rather insidious consequences. Things don’t immediately fall apart. Instead there is a gradual erosion of benefits that causes a cascade of related and also seemingly unrelated problems. You may still be getting some benefit from the remaining XP practices, but the system is now much more fragile and less resilient. You have removed some of the reinforcing mechanisms from the method that helped insure it is robust. When the team encounters a crisis, some sort of emergency in production where they need rapid turnaround and depend on high feedback, they aren’t prepared. They are slow to respond, introduce more defects and likely to struggle. At which point someone is liable to point out that this process sucks. Congratulations! Of course it does, you made it suck.

This is the reason that adherents of pre-packaged methods tend to sound so religious about the unequivocal adoption of all their practices. You have to adopt all the practices, otherwise you aren’t doing XP, Scrum, Kanban, and so on. I want to pause for a moment, because I don’t think that’s the end of the story. 

If we were to stop for a moment and look at development and management practices (agile and otherwise) we might find that there are practices that tend to have similarities that might cause us to group them together. Testing and QA practices like TDD, BDD, and others do share many similarities. Estimation practices like story points, ideal developer days, and others also share similarities. My point is that for any given meme or idea that we have in XP or in agile in general, there are multiple supporting practices that may fit. In addition, some practices are sophisticated enough that adoption can be measured by degree rather than in absolutes (we are 30% toward CI rather than all or nothing). My point is that there are multiple options for many of the key elements of popular frameworks. And even within many of those options there is a matter of the degree of adoption. After all, as so many agile advocates often say, it’s a journey, not a destination. Therefore, if I’m 30% of the way along the path, that must be worth something.

All of this is to say that we can substitute our own practices with some judicious caution. We’re allowed to do that, despite what the more religious might say. In fact, we can mix and match to find the elements that work for us. Now this is really hanging our toes out on the radical edge. Ivar Jacobson has something he calls essential methods. Basically, it is a catalog of development methods that you can combine and recombine to build your own framework. Now, you can still screw up. Remember that the reason that frameworks like XP and scrum have been successful is that they have concepts that are interlocking and support each other. The DIY approach is much riskier (practices may or may not support each other), but for some groups that may be the best way to go.

The important thing is to understand why these frameworks work as well as they do. They are composed of a series of practices that support each other, making them robust in the face of a world full of disruption and challenges. You mess with them at your own risk. Or…you build your own. Just know that you need to understand what you are building. If you do it poorly, it very likely won’t work.


Time Machine

February 26, 2019

OK, Mr. Peabody, where are we going today?

Well Sherman, Any time I explain what Scrum or XP is, I start with time boxes. The time box method has been around a really long time. The earliest record I can find in a casual search is where they were used at DuPont in the 1980s. I suspect that time boxes are much older than that. The time box basically applies a constraint to the system. It creates an arbitrary start and end date, usually on the smaller side. You commit to a fixed amount of work and when the end of the time box is reached you are done, no matter what the completion state of the work. Work that is complete is counted as done within the time box, work that still remains to be finished is either scope that gets dropped or perhaps that work is continued in the next time box.

This technique has some benefits:

  1. Deadlines, even arbitrary 2 week time boxes, help keep everyone focused.
  2. Deadlines force the question of prioritization. Not everything will fit in the box.
  3. Small time boxes create a short heartbeat or pulse that is useful for measures of capacity and throughput.
  4. It forms a useful skeleton for the OODA improvement cycle

There are also some challenges:

  1. Small time boxes demand that you figure out how to break work down into smaller, but still valuable pieces. Many teams find this hard to do.
  2. Small time boxes means that it is almost inevitable that scope won’t be delivered sooner or later. How the business manages this scenario says a lot about how the benefits of time boxes are perceived.
  3. Much of the angst of estimation is due primarily to the fact that teams are struggling to fit work to their limited capacity in ways they didn’t have to prior to the time box.
  4. It doesn’t work if you can’t break the iron triangle of scope, schedule, and quality. Scope usually has to be compromised in some form or another in order for time boxes to work (it’s kind of what they are based on)

Like so many other things, a time box is useful in the right context, but not all contexts. I’ve seen a few projects where a time box would not work (hardware constraints, legacy mainframe applications, an organization that wasn’t willing to give up the iron triangle, etc.). All too often we force the time box on the team and tell them that they suck if they can’t overcome the challenges. Sometimes that’s true, other times it isn’t. It’s a judgement call. Beware, and don’t let yourself get caught forcing a round peg into a square hole (I’m looking at you Scrum).


Painting The Spots

February 16, 2019

If you do a little reading about Scrum one of the first things that you learn are the 5 basic values of Scrum:

  • Courage
  • Focus
  • Respect
  • Committment
  • Openness

I’d like to examine one of those values that I watched a team wrestle with recently: commitment. These were really great folks. They were bright, energetic, friendly and passionate about the work they were doing. Within the team they took a lot of pride in their ability to “be agile.” They seemed to be doing a lot of good stuff.

However, I was hearing some disconcerting things from other parts of the organization. Other teams characterized this team as flakey. Managers expressed frustration that they didn’t deliver. I wasn’t sure what the story really was. Was it a cultural thing? Was it petty jealousy at work? I really had no idea.

An opportunity came along to do a little coaching with the team in question, so I was eager to find out more. Here’s what I found:

  • Optimism at the start: So the team said that they were prone to overcommitting to the amount of work they could handle in a sprint. During sprint planning, they would realize the balance of the work was unequal and that there would be team members left idle. So they would take on more “overflow” work to make sure that everyone on the team has something to do during the sprint. It’s great that they were aware of this problem. This pattern of behavior was leading the team to consistently overload their sprints with more work than they could achieve. The team told me that their typical velocity was 27-29 points per sprint. When I asked them what they had committed to in the last sprint, the answer was: 44 points. When I pointed out the obvious discrepancy, they admitted that they had overflow work from the previous sprint that they felt they had to get done. So then I asked them if they were going to deliver on all 44 points. And the survey says: No.
    The good news? This injury was self-inflicted. The bad news? It didn’t sound like they were entirely convinced they had a serious problem. A pattern of failing to reliably deliver sprint objectives can lead to a crisis of trust with a team’s stakeholders. The stakeholders start to doubt whether or not you will deliver on your sprint commitments. This can be a corrosive influence on the relationship with the very people who are signing the team’s paychecks. The solution? Stop overcommitting. This means that the team has to face some awkward issues about how to manage balancing work within their ranks. These are issues they were able to hide from by overloading the team with work. I got some grudging buy-in at this point, but I could tell that there was still work to be done.
  • Carry over matter: Since they are overloading the sprint, they are almost guaranteed to have items that are not completed and those get carried into the next sprint. I took the time to point out that this sort of issue is a problem, but you can skate by when you are simply going from sprint to sprint. However, when you are trying to work to a release plan with multiple teams and multiple sprints, then carry over is a total deal breaker. If you are working with other teams and you have a pattern of failing to deliver stories, the other teams are very quickly going to learn that you are not a good partner to work with.
  • Transparency: So I asked about this because I wasn’t sure what the problem was. Apparently they were concerned that they were being asked to track their time and their tasks in a time tracking tool to a level of detail that was making them uncomfortable. As we talked about it someone said, “I don’t think they trust us…” I could tell that this person was a bit upset by this perceived lack of trust. Of course I put on my Mr. Sensitivity hat and replied…Of course they don’t trust you! You don’t deliver committed work on time!

Well, I don’t think I said it exactly like that, but it was some polite variation on that theme. Now people were upset, and finally my message was getting through. The product owner for the team, gave me loud and vigorous support at this point. You could tell that we had stumbled on a fundamental assumption that people on the team were realizing was dead wrong. The scrum master articulated the invalid assumption for me: The whole purpose of having a sprint goal means that you can achieve the goal without having to deliver specific stories. You focus on the goal rather than the stories. That is an interesting, but completely incorrect interpretation of how commitment works. Apparently much of the team was operating with this model in mind. Once I pointed out that other people were depending on those specific stories being delivered, not some abstract goal, then you could feel the resistance immediately start to evaporate.

The other thing that was a little disturbing about this situation is the blind spot that the team had when working with other teams. They had explained away their inability to deliver as due to their own superior understanding of what it means to ‘be agile.’ No one else understood how awesome they were because the other teams weren’t as agile as they were. Now there is no doubt that they were doing a lot of things right. Like I mentioned in the beginning, they had a lot of good things going on. However, they had managed to paint over the ugly bits of their process without examining them and addressing them. Their ‘agility’ was their excuse for not delivering commitments. This sort of failure is not unusual – I’ve seen it happen in plenty of other teams. Dealing with these sorts of issues is hard for a team to do. Sometimes it takes an outsider to see them and point them out. So be careful about declaring your own agility. Doing so can sometimes hide some ugly spots.

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To learn more about the services that I offer or to arrange for an initial consultation, please see thomasperryllc.com


The Agile Gymnasium

January 12, 2016

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I used to be a weightlifter. All through college, and for much of my adult life I have been in gyms exercising in one form or another. I’ve had some modest success. The experience of joining a gym goes along some standard lines. You’ve probably done it yourself. You show up and they take you around the facility and orient you to the equipment. They may even go so far as to give you some very basic training. You get an introduction to circuit training and then they slap you on the butt and tell you to “go be awesome!” You can record your exercise sessions on this little card over here…

That’s pretty much it.

As you might imagine, the success rate with that sort of system is fairly low. A lot of people never come back (although many continue to pay their monthly dues). Those who do come back typically have no idea what modern exercise programming looks like and simply go through the motions: they ride the stair master, do a few sit-ups, and maybe do some curls. That sort of exercise has some marginal utility – you get some small amount of aerobic benefit, but it’s a far cry from exercising a meaningful percentage of most people’s potential.

Most people stop there, but there are a few who have a more ambitious goal in mind. They may be trying to improve their tennis game with better conditioning. They may be looking to build massive pectoral muscles (like most teenage boys). They may be trying to maintain their conditioning in the off season of their sport, perhaps like cycling in the winter. In other words, the purpose of their exercise is to improve their performance in some sort of real world scenario.

I’d like to pause for a moment here. I was listening to a discussion with some folks who owned their own gym and they had an interesting model. It had three tiers to it:

  1. Gym Work: Work in the gym is not like the real world at all. It is where you go to prepare for the real world. The gym is a safe place to work to the point of failure (that’s important) and to learn.
  2. Expeditions: Expeditions are adventures in the real world that are guided by a coach. So it is real world experience, but with someone there to guide you and help if you fail.
  3. The Real World: This is where it all comes together. Ultimately, this is where the training in the Gym and the experience in the expeditions pays off in terms of improved performance.

As a model for the role of training for high performance, I thought this made a lot of sense. There was one more thing that they added to this: They were capturing data on the entire group’s performance and analyzing it in order to provide better training for individuals in the future!

So when you join the gym, you use a training program that is similar to what others in the gym are using. Your performance of that program is measured and metrics across the entire population training in the gym are measured. Then experimental changes are made to the training program and their benefit (or lack thereof) is measured across the group. Gradually their training program improves over time. But the training isn’t just tested in the gym. They also track the performance of their members when they go on expeditions. This measures the effectiveness of their training program in the real world.

OK, enough about this gym. What if we could use the same metaphor for the way we train our development teams? Training would be a weekly thing. Something where you go in for training on a periodic basis to firm up your skills. There might be repetitions (pair programming, mob programming, etc.) and there might be coaching (coaching circles, etc.) and there might be someone who is coordinating the training program and measuring the performance across the entire group of trainees.

There could be expeditions from time to time. Hackathons where people get to try out what they have learned in the gym out in the real world. You know: build a real project, maybe deliver something over a weekend. Test out your mastery of your skills in the real world – with a coach there if you need it.

Then there is game day – the real world. You take what you have learned and join a team. You get to flex your massive coding and collaboration muscles and help build something challenging – something amazing. What a great model for development! But I’m not done yet…

Let’s take this model, we’ll call it the “gymnasium model”, and apply it to something like Certified Scrum Master Training. Right now, there is two days of class time and exercises and then they slap the CSM on you and send the newly minted CSM out into the world. It’s a hauntingly similar scenario to the average person’s experience at the Gym: welcome to scrum, now “go be awesome!” Maybe you do a few sprints, do a few standups and off you go. That’s about as agile as most people get. Seriously. You get some marginal benefit, but that’s about it. It could be so much more.

But what if we did things differently? What if instead of signing up for a 2 day class, you were to join an Agile gym. Maybe twice each week you go into the gym to “work out”. A coach would give you a workout, perhaps something like this:

1. Dysfunctional Standup
2. 3 Reps in the coaching dojo
3. 2 Sets of mob programming
4. 2 reps of code katas
5. 1 cool down with a retrospective

That’s just a sample workout. The Agile Gym is a safe place to try out new skills and to push ourselves. The coach would be responsible for measuring the effectiveness of the workout and modifying it over time. Experimenting with new techniques and combinations of methods and evaluating the outcomes. Of course, this is just training in the gym. From time to time we are going to need to test our our competence in the real world. The coach would provide some guided expeditions (perhaps twice a month). For example:

1. Participating in a Hackathon
2. Participating in a Startup Weekend
3. Participating in a Maker Fair

These are events in the real world that are important places to evaluate the effectiveness of our training in the gym. If our coding skills have improved, then we should do well at these events and build confidence in our ability to use our newfound skills in the real world. Speaking of the real world, hopefully now we would see the agile behaviors that we have practiced being manifested in useful ways in the actual projects that we are running from day to day. Our collaboration skills should be tight, our planning impeccable, our retrospectives revealing. And if we find any weak areas, then it is back to the gym for more training.

In this model, the gym is always open. You actually practice your skills and see improvement. What an amazing way to learn about agile!

It’s not a bad model really. Actually, it’s a really darn good one. Who wants to start a gym?


Keeping It In the Family

October 16, 2014

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I was asked the other day, “Do you use Scrum at home?” It’s not the first time that I’ve been asked this question. The honest answer is: no. Oh, I’ve used bits and pieces here and there. I’ve put together a taskboard to track work on the occasional big household project. I’ve even built a backlog from time to time. But that is about the extent of it. I’ve been married for nearly twenty years – I’m not about to screw it up with Scrum or any other method for that matter.

You won’t find me standing around with the kids doing a daily standup. There is no weekly planning meeting on my family calendar. And the only retrospective that I do is after getting caught leaving the toilet seat up (“Doh!”). Nope, I’ve got to be honest, my household isn’t very agile.

You might ask, “Why not?”

Dang, that’s a really good question. I’m not sure that I have a good answer. Maybe I just want to leave all that stuff at work. But if that were the case, then why do I go home and write this blog? No, that’s not it. Maybe there really has been no structure modelled in my family life before. In fact, the very idea of doing that kind of “work” at home makes me cringe a little bit. I guess I feel like we have things under control. Maybe I don’t even want that control. It’s really hard to say.

I think there is value in sharing the practical time management techniques that I use at work with my kids. I didn’t hesitate to introduce them to pomodoros when my daughter was struggling to stay focused on her homework. It felt really good to be able to introduce her to a tool that would help her be successful. She loves pomodoros! The kids like all the fooling around that I do with self-experiments around the house (“Hey! Look at Daddy!”). They always want to know what kind of nutty thing Dad is doing this week.

However, I’ve never felt a compelling need to have any kind of formal family meeting at all. Call me a bit waterfall. I guess when it comes to my family I only want to give them the techniques that they need for the problems they have. I don’t want to burden them with a framework. Got a problem with focus? Use pomodoros. Does the problem seem too large? Break it down into stories. No progress? Try iterating.

When I can provide a helpful technique that solves their problems (agile or not), I feel like Superman. Seriously folks, there is no better feeling in the world. There is no preaching. I don’t lecture them on the perils of waterfall. To my kids a waterfall is something you ride a log down at Disneyland. I aim to keep it that way as long as possible.

I guess, in retrospect it’s not such a bad approach for introducing agile practices for anyone, regardless of whether they are in your family or not. In fact, why would you treat a team any differently than your family? Aren’t they just that – your extended family? Can we use this to inform how we approach introducing Agile Practices to our teams?

Maybe we just introduce them to the tools they need to solve the problem that they have in the moment. Perhaps that’s how we start. That’s how we demonstrate value and earn trust. Not by dumping some framework they must comply with on their heads.

Hmmm….I think I’ve been doing it wrong.

Introduce agile practices to your team like you would to your family. Give them only what they need and let them figure out the rest.


This is the Way Scrum Ends

September 30, 2014

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This is the way the world ends
This is the way the world ends
This is the way the world ends
Not with a bang but a whimper.

– T.S. Eliot

Did you ever wonder if this is the future of Scrum? Will it eventually go out with a whimper? I think a lot of people fear this fate for everyone’s favorite framework. Go to a conference or follow your favorite luminary on Twitter and you hear a chorus of “That’s Scrumbut!”, “It’s FrAgile”, or “Welcome to Scrummerfall!” And maybe that’s the way it has to be. Perhaps all great new ideas eventually become diluted in a sea of mediocrity.

I think I hear a longing in some to fight such dissolution. To resist the forces of corporate entropy. Rather than try to fit in, they urge us to confront and overturn the system. You know, subvert the dominant paradigm? Confronting this dissonance is the difference between making a living and actually living.

I wonder if that’s the difference between those who “fire” their customers and those who stay and work within the system. Are those consultants who give up and declare, “These clowns aren’t ready for Scrum.” going out with a bang? And what about those who stay? Are they afraid to make the big moves and just content to fit in? Whimper. Or are they more subtle than that? Can you embrace your client and still change them? Perhaps the “bang” approach is quicker, and more decisive. And maybe, just maybe, remaining engaged is very, very hard, but yields results in the end.

I know, I know…why so bleak? Well, I feel this tension a lot in our weird little community. I’ve been on both sides of the engagements where a respected consultant has tossed their hands in the air and walked away from the engagement because “They just don’t get it.” or “They’re not ready yet.” And I’ve been that poor fool, laboring away within the system, living on a meager diet of optimism and the occasional conference, trying to make change happen. I won’t pretend to know which approach is right, or even when to use these strategies, but I think it would be worthwhile to understand this issue better.


Swarming Context

September 29, 2014

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The application of Swarming as a method can be broken down into four main contexts. For each context the process of swarming is different. Allowing for different contexts makes sense, because we really can’t expect the same process to work equally well in every situation. Even the simplest animals are able to exhibit variations in behavior based on the context, so why shouldn’t our processes? We change our behavior to match the circumstances. That is, unless we are using fixed methods like Scrum or Kanban. If you are using fixed methods, the proscription is to treat the process in a fractal fashion, repeating it everywhere. Practically speaking, by having only one process these methods ignore the context.

So what are the four contexts of Swarming? Here they are in no particular order:

  • Emergencies
  • Shifting Gears
  • Innovation
  • Building

Emergencies represent the simplest context for swarming. When a crisis occurs, it’ all hands on deck. Everyone joins the conversation and brings whatever specific expertise they have to the party. The group self-organizes to enable those present to contribute to solving the problem. You see this a lot in production operations environments when a “P1” defect occurs or, heaven forbid, the production system goes down. When this happens, everyone swarms on the problem. Some are gathering information, some are listening and integrating the information, and some are taking action to try and remedy the situation. All of this is happening dynamically in the moment without central organization. All of these activities are critical to the success of the swarm. During a crisis, nobody is going to stop what they are doing for a standup meeting, and they sure as hell aren’t interested in seeing your Kanban board.

Shifting gears refers to when the system is in transition. The corporate ecosystems that we are all a part of are changing faster with every passing day. New products are coming to market and disrupting the old ones. It’s not enough to simply work within the existing system. You can’t keep up that way. These days corporations have to match their structure to the complexity of the environment. That’s hard, and that’s where swarming comes in. Like when honey bees form a swarm, the corporation reaches a critical mass where a new structure is necessary. Up until this point, the hive has been a stable and reliable structure, but with the presence of a new queen everything changes. A cascade of events takes place where the hive moves on. This can also happen with companies. When they reach a certain size, they can spin off subsidiaries, divisions, and even teams. We see this when teams reach critical mass and split into two teams (meiosis). On swarming teams, we use simple rules to enable groups to decide on their own when division should take place (Team size of 7 plus or minus 2). We use the swarming values and principles to help guide who works on each team – always leaning toward letting individuals decide based on where their own passions take them.

In swarming, Innovation is treated as foraging. We are foraging for new information and new ideas. In this context we are actively using our social networks to recruit new people and new ideas to our cause. This can be initiated as part of a special state (shifting gears) or it can be part of the ongoing activities of the team. When ants are foraging, they tend to follow the strongest pheromone trails to a food source. However this rule is not universal. There are ants who wander off the pheromone trail from time to time. These solitary explorers are the ones who have the unique opportunity to wander off the beaten path and potentially find rich new sources of food. So too, we want people on our team not to follow the team too closely. It’s best if they can wander off and explore side avenues and blind alleys. This isn’t something that is dictated, it’s a natural part of teams with rich diversity. People make these decisions on their own and either bring them back to the original team or they form a new team.

Building takes place when we are trying to strengthen our networks. As a team is growing it uses it’s social networks to strengthen bonds both within and without the team. This can be as simple as increasing the number of social “touches” on a team. Social touches are things like: greeting each other, going out to lunch together, supporting each other’s work. There are some people who are stronger at this than others. Some people tend to form many lightweight social contacts (which is very useful). On the other hand, there are those who only have a few deep, strong relationships. A good swarming team is composed of a healthy balance of both types of people.

In summary, swarming is used differently based on the context you are in. Understand the context, and you are prepared to take advantage of the power of swarming.